1. Pub. L. No. 104-104, 110 Stat. 133 (1996).

2. 47 U.S.C. 223(a) (1994 & Supp. III 1997).

3. 47 U.S.C. 223(d) (1994 & Supp. III 1997).

4. 521 U.S. 844 (1997).

5. Id. at 868-69.

6. Id. at 871-72.

7. Id. at 871-72.

8. 47 U.S.C. 231 (Supp. IV 1998).

9. 47 U.S.C. 231(a)(1) (Supp. IV 1998).

10. 47 U.S.C. 231(c)(1) (Supp. IV 1998).

11. 31 F. Supp. 2d 473 (E.D. Pa. 1999).

12. Id. at 494-95.

13. Id. at 495.

14. Id. at 491.

15. Id.

16. Id. at 495-97.

17. Id. at 496-97.

18. Id.

19. 18 U.S.C. 2251-2253 (1994 & Supp. IV 1998).

20. 18 U.S.C. 2251-2252A (1994 & Supp. IV 1998).

21. 18 U.S.C. 2252A(a)(1)-(5), 2256(8)(C)-(D) (1994 & Supp. IV 1998).

22. 167 F.3d 61, 65 (1st Cir. 1999), cert. denied, 120 S. Ct. 115 (1999).

23. Id. at 72 (quoting S. REP. NO. 104-358 at pts. I, IV(B)).

24. Id. at 72.

25. Id.

26. Id. at 74.

27. Id.

28. 195 F.3d 645, 648 (11th Cir. 1999).

29. Id. at 651.

30. Id.

31. Id.

32. Id. at 651.

33. Id. at 652.

34. Id. at 653.

35. 198 F.3d 1083, 1086 (9th Cir. 1999).

36. Id. at 1092.

37. Id.

38. Id. at 1093.

39. Id.

40. Id. at 1095-96.

41. Id. at 1095.

42. Id. at 1096.

43. Id. at 1092.